DFSS Deployment Strategy
Design for Six Sigma uses a product development process which is similar to a map of the expectations of what will happen with a product throughout its life cycle. The stages are shown here, and we will elaborate on each stage in the subsequent slides.
Product/service life-cycle stages:
- Customer and business requirements study
- Concept development
- Product/service design/prototyping
- Manufacturing process; preparation/product launch
- Product/service consumption
The product development process outlines all of the planned activities, methods, and processes of development, called quality assurance. In this process, you will demonstrate and provide confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements for quality. This quality must be tied to each phase of the product’s life cycle both up and down stream.
The first stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Impetus or ideation stage. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring new technology and ideas are robust for downstream development of the new idea. The Quality methods in this stage are Robust technology development. The product development process begins with the impetus/ideation stage. The impetus stage is the thought of a new product or service or the discovery of a new technology or business need. This is without any idea on how this would be developed or sold. Once the idea is created through the impetus and determined, a viable product or service can be developed during the ideation phase. The ideation phase focuses on determining all of the possible product or services related to the impetus. It begins a directional focus, where the organization brainstorms on the lead time to develop the new product or service idea and determines the viability and required quality.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Customer and business requirements study. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring that your new product/service has the right functional requirements to satisfy your customer’s needs. The Quality methods in this stage are Quality Function Deployment (QFD), to be discussed further as we go into the DFSS Methodologies. The Customer and business requirements study defines the key functional elements which will satisfy potential customers and the possible success in the marketplace. This phase involves feasibility studies, customer research, financial valuation reports, cost benefits, and the return on investment (ROI). These studies ensure the new product or service is competitive in the future market. Modeling and simulation are used to refine the product or service concept to achieve the best possible functionality and lowest possible cost. The key output of this stage is to make sure the final product or service will meet customer needs.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Concept development. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring that the new concept has a solid design that is free of vulnerabilities. Your new design must be robust for downstream development. The Quality methods in this stage are Taguchi methods of robust design, TRIZ, Axiomatic design, Design Of Experiments, Simulation optimization, and use of the Reliability-based design.
The Concept development stage takes the ideas from the impetus and combines them with some of the viable options determined by the customer and business requirements study to convert one or more of the options into a high-level product concept. In this stage, you will clarify product requirements and functional requirements to make sure the product or service will deliver its intended results while reducing costs and improving functionality through the use of quality method tools.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is Product/service design prototyping. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring that the designed product parameters deliver the desired product or service over their useful life. You will ensure the design is robust for variations in the processing stages through manufacturing, consumption, and disposal. The Quality methods in this stage are the Taguchi method of robust design, Design of Experiments, Simulation optimization, and Reliability-based design testing and estimation.
The Product/service design and prototyping stage is used to be sure the exact detailed functional requirements and their actual implementation occurs within your design parameters. This includes your design specifics for materials and part specifications. Your design parameters will provide all of the necessary details to begin manufacture, construction, or production. After the product design prototypes are built to test and validate the design, if the results of testing meet specifications, full production may begin. If the test results are not satisfactory, the design may require revision.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Manufacturing process and product launch.
The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring that the manufacturing process will deliver the designed product consistently. The Quality methods in this stage are the Taguchi method of robust design, Design of Experiments, Quality methods, and troubleshooting and diagnosis.
In the Manufacturing process and product launch stage, the manufacturing process design will be finalized and undergo testing and adjustment. Once the process is validated and accepted, it is incorporated as process and ready for production. You will map product design parameters to process variables. The process that was designed on paper is realized in the manufacturing process and it is able to produce the real product free of defects both consistently and economically.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Production stage. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring that the product or service you are producing has a high degree of consistency, controlled variability, and is free of defects. The Quality methods in this stage are statistical process control, troubleshooting and diagnosis, and inspection. In the actual Production stage, full-scale production occurs and the product or service is produced and shipped to the market. The key deliverable for this stage is to ensure that the final product is in conformance with the product requirements. Statistical Process Control (SPC) will be implemented in this stage of production to ensure quality standards are met and acceptance inspection is performed.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Product or service consumption. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring that the customer has a satisfactory experience with the product or service during consumption. The Quality methods in this stage are after-sale customer service.
In the Product/service consumption stage, the product or service is actually used or consumed by the customer. You will monitor defects, warranty usage, and service to keep the product in use and the customer satisfied to improve your brand name and image. The warranty and service program data will provide valuable information to improve the quality of future production and product design for your company. At this point you will also be able to analyze product failure costs and make improvements in the design if required.
The next stage of the product/service life-cycle is the Disposal stage. The Quality assurance tasks of this phase include ensuring a trouble-free disposal of the product or service for the customer. The Quality methods in this stage are service quality. In the Disposal stage, you will provide a mechanism for the consumer or customer to dispose of the product after its expected lifespan is complete. Environmental concerns are increasing and customers desire sustainability and environmentally-friendly disposal. Once the product is ready for disposal, this is an opportunity to see if it is meeting expectations or if opportunities exist to take the product in new directions. This may require minor design refinements, a major renovation, or new ideation beginning the cycle for a new product. You may actually develop an entirely new product to replace the old